Credibility; Q4


Presumed credibility describes the extent to which a person believes something because of what their general knowledge and assumption is.

An example of an website that is of presumed knowledge would be ‘Oxfam Australia’, this credible source is helping those in poverty and helps contribute to those who are in poverty ravished countries. Through the communication and information that is spoken about this website is known for the charitable works it performs and that it specific for the topic that it is representing.


Many people’s perception of credibility on the Wed often leads to the centre of reputed credibility, a form that is based on the endorsement or recommendation of a third party company or individual. On the web this is showed in the form of awards, seals of approval, certified links and approval of friends.

A website that has been recommended by many, especially tutors and lectures at University is JStor. The mouth of word referral was used for this website, and has provided reliable and credible information when completing work. Word of mouth is a powerful tool when using websites as it gives you an insight into what you are looking for before even accessing the website.


Surface credibility relies on you to make judgement or direct experience when it comes to a website. This is purely up to first impressions and what you think of the overall design and aesthetics of the website.

The website for BMW Australia presents surface credibility from the moment you first access the website. The website detonates professionalism through factors such as the layout of information and the clear colour scheme that is used. The colour scheme is simple and the colours that represent the company, and what people know the company for, blue’s and whites.


Earned credibility is the most difficult to achieve, but has the highest chances of changing attitudes and behaviours towards a website. When credibility is earned, people are more likely to spend extra time on the website and visit it more often.

The website that has earned credibility in terms to online shopping, which in today’s society is becoming more prominent is Asos fashion. This online shop is recognised worldwide for its fast, secure online payments and for shipping all over the world. With reliable sources and products that come from international stores, makes it accessible for everyone, and a very popular choice for people in this type of retail.


Credibility; Q3


In the future there will be many issues that continue to arise with the wide world web and the credibility that it holds. With technology becoming so advanced, in a very rapid fashion the general public need to become aware of the changes and process that are happening and how to ensure you are using legitimate and reliable internet sites, especially when it comes to online shopping and online banking. Issues that will continue to arise will be;

–          Anyone is able to create a website, with any information they want.

–          The ability of under generations to use technology rapidly means that more content is made accessible to all ages through the internet.

–          Online commerce sites, such as EBay and online internet will continue to have interferences with fraud and security, an increase in demand for these website will need to lead to higher security and monitoring.

–          With the introduction of web 3.0 more promotional ideas are being brought in for the wider network of people.

–          With the introduction of Wikipedia many more online sources like this will become more common, making it more difficult to assess credible information and trustworthy sources without being caught out.

Credibility; Q2

Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia that allows user of the internet to freely access information that has been posted, thus allowing them to freely create new posts, edit old ones and add information to other people’s work without having any authority to do so. A lot of the time this is being done by merely young children and people who are wanting to have some fun and muck around with information that can sometimes be of logic and reliable. Stanford University conducted an investigation into the use of Wikipedia and saw that more than 900 000 authors are registered on the site. With over a billion people able to access the internet at anytime this is a worrying indication that information can be tampered with at anytime, without authors being aware. Although we are often told to stay away from Wikipedia it can be useful as a guide or to merely inform you of any topic given, thus making your research easier to conduct through reliable sources. It can also be noted that that there are little to no checks and balances that are conducted in place to monitor what is going onto the website, and who is putting it on. If you are wanting to use Wikipedia to find information out, you are best to scroll to the bottom of the page and look at the sources the author has used, and then go to those links to find more information, you will then know if the information you’re receiving is reliable and credible.

Reference List

Investigations into trust for collaborative information repositories: A wikipedia case study. Standford University. Retrieved May 30, 2009, from:

Online trust: a stakeholder perspective, concepts, implications, and future directions .The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Volume 11, Issues 3-4, December 2002, Pages 325-344

Credibility; Q1

In today’s society there are various reasons to why credibility should be evaluated in order for websites to be seen as reliable. A key factor would be that the author is always being acknowledged for the work being put in. Web credibility is important as it such a major source of information for people today. People across the globe turn to the Internet daily to get their daily news, to get information about an issue.

Some simple factors that help our perception of a site’s credibility are:

–          A professional looking design

–          The information is presented in a clear and logical manner

–          The references from the sites go to where the information is from

Also, there are some factors to be aware of that prevent a website from being credible:

–          Typological errors present

–          Untrustworthy links to other websites

–          A large amount of advertisements promoting irrelevant information

As a university student web credibility is becoming a more crucial element when completing work. Ensuring that our information we are receiving is of correct information and relevant can be difficult to come by, unless searching in current spots and that the information has been credited by certified associations. According to Deborah Grimes, “Students are seduced by convenience and speed” (2001). The alludes to many scholars becoming more and more worried for students, particularly those who use online sources without properly researching using other methods, this is when the quality of student work will begin to decrease as a result.


Reference List

Worries within the web: A look at student use of web resources. Grimes, D., & Boening, C. Retrieved May 27th 2012, from:

Ron Castles Webs. [n.d.]. retrieved May, 2012, from the Web site:

Performance Load; Example

 Product 1- Keyless car key

The automatic car key is adequate example that complies with the design brief, as it only takes a small amount of mental power to press the bottom and open the car. The image here shows clearly the simplicity of opening a door by pressing the unlock icon. The objects can therefore efficiently shows its purpose to open and close quickly and the design doesn’t defer from the purpose.


Product 2- iPhone

A mobile phone, more specifically an iPhone is an easy method of communication. It allows a person to send emails quicker with the portable function of it being able to travel anywhere with you. Any smart phone helps to drastically reduce the kinematic load satisfying the performance load design principle.


Product 3- A potato peeler

A potato peeler satisfies the basic design principle of performance load as it is easy and simple to use for anyone, nearly any aged person can use this simple household appliance. You are able to glance at the product and know quite quickly how to use it. There is no fiddling around with small parts, instruction manuals or buttons, it’s simple and effective design doesn’t distract from its main goal, to peal potatoes.

Performance Load; Q3


Psychology is an important factor when creating visual designs; it is the ability to understand the mind and plays an important role in the design process.  The subtle messages in a design can sometimes be more influential than the information that is given through text. Without being able to comprehend an audience or being able to cater to the needs wouldn’t be any positive impact or successful interaction to which someone presents to. The psychological element of design such as the choice of colour allows for subliminal messages to be portrayed. Colours that are used help to convey different meaning to the audience and have their own specific representation. Psychology is an important factor in design, without the straight forward means society would be seen as confused and disorganized without structure.

Reference List

Sweller, John (1988) Cognitive Load During Problem Solving: Effects on Learning. Vol 12, pp 257-258.

Kidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Universal Principles Of Design. United States: Rockport Publishers.

Performance Load; Q2


The chunking technique is a technique enables people to remember more information. Our brain finds it easier to remember information that is broken down into smaller, meaningful chunks. Our working memory is limited to holding between five and ten chunks of information. For example it is easier for people to remember 13 13 16, rather than the numbers 1 3 1 3 1 6 separately. This also the reason that phone numbers are restricted to eight numbers.

The chunking technique is used not only to recall information. The chunking technique is used everyday, all around us, in visual design, to make things easier to use. For example a clothing shop. A clothing shop will normally put jeans in one section, shirts in another and have different sections for male and female clothes. This makes it easier for the consumer to walk into the store and go to the section that has the items they need.

“A man just beginning to learn radio-telegraphic code hears each dit and dah as a separate chunk. Soon he is able to organize these sounds into letters and then he can deal with the letters as chunks. Then the letters organize themselves as words, which are still larger chunks, and he begins to hear whole phrases.” (Miller, 1956)

 Reference List

Miller, George (1956), The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information. Vol, 63, p. 81-97.

Performance Load; Q1

Performance load, “the greater the effort to accomplish a task, the less likely the task will be accomplished successfully”(Lidwell, Holden & Butler, 2003), is the underlining affect and rule when undertaking a task that is too large to be accomplished to the fullest level. To complete a task your level of mental and physical activity is required to achieve a goal that is set out. The performance load needs to be low in order to complete the task successfully and avoid errors; if the load is high you are introducing ways that errors can be made. Performance load can be divided into two loads, cognitive and kinematic.

Exploring the cognitive load theory you need to develop an understanding of it, the theory starts from the idea that our working memory is limited with respect to the amount of information it can hold, thus therefore the number of operations it can perform on any specific information. Dr. John Sweller is currently working at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. He leads a team investigating cognitive processes and their applications for teaching techniques and instructional design, with cognitive load theory being the major framework (Sweller, 1996).

Kinematic load is the degree in which physical activity is performed, the number of steps and the amount of force that it takes. Kinematic load describes the degree of physical activity required to do something. For example the number of steps and movement required.


 Performance Load

Sweller, John (1988) Cognitive Load During Problem Solving: Effects on Learning. Vol 12, pp 257-258.

Kidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Universal Principles Of Design. United States: Rockport Publishers.

Misha, S., Sharma, R. C. (2004). Interactive Multimedia in Education and Training. United Kingdom: Idea Group Publishing.

Sweller, J., (1994). Cognitive load theory, learning difficulty and instructional design. University of NSW, Elsuier Science Ltd.

Consistency; Q2

Product 1- Magazines

An example of where consistency is a requirement in everyday life is in magazines and the content that is presented. The information in each publication will always have structure that the readers are familiar with, making their reading experience easy and follows a consistent flow each week. Each magazine has something special about its appearance that rarely changes, unless strong input has been enforced by the readers. Many companies though try rarely to change the structure or logo as the familiarity of the product is what entices readers to return.

Product 2- Bath and Shower knobs; Red= hot, Blue= cold

A product that is consistent all over the world is the colouring for shower and bath knobs, that is red signifying hot water and blue being cold. Without this awareness of colours all over the world this universal icon could be something of a hazard without knowledge. This function of colours makes people in countries where the language spoken is their first, able to make a simple decision like having a bath or shower easier by knowing that red is hot and blue is cold.

Product 3- Airplane Ticket

An airline must provide all customers with a ticket that shows them to their seat number and have time of flight and flight number provided for all. A ticket is provided so that people are familiar with the happenings and feel a sense of security when flying. Commonality within all airlines is that all tickets are common in what is presented on each ticket. Without the consistency of this people would be unfamiliar when flying and only become co-dependent with one airline, which would cause bad results for business.

Consistency; Q1

Consistency is essential when producing a product for a company. The similarity of a system is improved when similar parts are expressed in almost the same way through and through. Discovering consistency means learning of four different functions, those include aesthetics, functional, internal and external. A higher level of consistency allows for the audience to find an increase in the usability of what is being demonstrated. The audience is able to absorb information and general content with greater ease when there is clear consistency.

The aesthetic consistency focuses purely on appearance and how that impacts on the audience. Lidwell, Holden and Butler (2003) recommended  to avoid confusion amongst the audience, ‘Use recognisable objects and distance cues to provide size and shape references for unfamiliar objects’. The presentation of content is focused on in this type of consistency, that is needed to make information clear and concise. The major factors that contribute to this are the font ypes used and the colouring that is produced.

The use of functional consistency impacts on the action and meaning that is evoked to the audience, at this point in time some prior knowledge is expected from the audience. This relates to the usage that the audience is comfortable with when using the product. The relationship that is somewhat physical is developed here. The examples of this would be what the audience understands in what to do to navigate through a website. The University of Minnestota, n.d. highlights that ‘Navigation bars are often the first thing a visitor encounters on a Web page. Each time a page loads, screen-reader users may have to listen to all of the navigational controls before hearing the main content of the page.’ This is important to consider because it proves that the navigation consistency is just as relevant to the consistency in the information and the direction that is needed.

Internal consistency refers to faith within people. It’s the consistency of acknowledging elements and being familiar with them in more than one place at any certain time. Such as a road works sign may be seen in more than one area but initially our minds will be familiar with this aesthetic sign, therefore making us aware of what it means, this can be acknowledge nearly anywhere in the world as all stop signs do mean to stop, no matter where you are. External consistency relates to environmental elements such as alarms and emergency lights which inform us about their purpose which is primarily remembered because of the design

Reference List

Critto, A. (2000). Consistency. In A. Critto, being coherent (p. 3). Maryland: University press of America.

Hoekstra, G. [n.d.]. WEBalley. “Web design – Consistency”. Retrieved May 2010, from the Web site:

Kidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Universal Principles Of Design. United States: Rockport Publishers.

Spool, J. (2005, September). Consistency in Design is (part of) the right approach . Retrieved from Details of global brain: